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Antitrust law, has three main elements: prohibiting agreements or practices that restrict free trading and competition between business.
This includes in particular the repression of free trade caused by cartels. banning abusive behavior by a firm dominating a market, or anti-competitive practices that tend to lead to such a dominant position. Practices controlled in this way may include predatory pricing, tying, price gouging, refusal to deal, and many others. supervising the mergers and acquisitions of large corporations, including some joint ventures.
Actuarial science is the discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in insurance, finance and other industries and professions.
Actuarial science includes a number of interrelated subjects, including mathematics, probability theory, statistics, finance, economics, and computer science. In traditional life insurance, actuarial science focuses on the analysis of mortality, the production of life tables, and the application of compound interest to produce life insurance, annuities and endowment policies.
Arbitration is often used for the resolution of commercial disputes, particularly in the context of international commercial transactions.
In certain countries such as the United States, arbitration is also frequently employed in consumer and employment matters, where arbitration may be mandated by the terms of employment or commercial contracts and may include a waiver of the right to bring a class action claim. Mandatory consumer and employment arbitration should be distinguished from consensual arbitration, particularly commercial arbitration.
In the United States, bankruptcy is governed by federal law, commonly referred to as the "Bankruptcy Code" ("Code").
The United States Constitution (Article 1, Section 8, Clause 4) authorizes Congress to enact "uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States." Congress has exercised this authority several times since 1801, including through adoption of the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978, as amended, codified in Title 11 of the United States Code and the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 (BAPCPA).
Business valuation is a process and a set of procedures used to estimate the economic value of an owner's interest in a business.
Valuation is used by financial market participants to determine the price they are willing to pay or receive to effect a sale of a business. In addition to estimating the selling price of a business, the same valuation tools are often used by business appraisers to resolve disputes related to estate and gift taxation, divorce litigation, allocate business purchase price among business assets...
DETERMINATION OF FAIR MARKET VALUE
Three different approaches are commonly used in business valuation: the income approach, the asset-based approach, and the market approach.
Within each of these approaches, there are various techniques for determining the value of a business using the definition of value appropriate for the appraisal assignment.
DISCOUNT OR CAPITALIZATION RATES
A discount rate or capitalization rate is used to determine the present value of the expected returns of a business.
The discount rate and capitalization rate are closely related to each other, but distinguishable. Generally speaking, the discount rate or capitalization rate may be defined as the yield necessary to attract investors to a particular investment, given the risks associated with that investment.
GOOD WILL IMPAIRMENT
Goodwill impairment is a charge that companies record when goodwill's carrying value on financial statements exceeds its fair value.
In accounting, goodwill is recorded after a company acquires assets and liabilities, and pays a price in excess of their identifiable value. Goodwill impairment arises when there is deterioration in the capabilities of acquired assets to generate cash flows, and the fair value of the goodwill dips below its book value. Goodwill impairment is an earnings charge that companies record on their income statements after they identify that there is persuasive evidence...
Of all the intrinsic characteristics related to an equity interest, arguably none may be more important than the element of control.
Widely accepted theory within the business valuation community holds that an investment in a privately held company is worth the present value of all of the future benefits inuring to the holder of that equity interest. Clearly, then, if the equity holder has a control position, he or she can accelerate the receipt of those future benefits and via management and operational initiatives, take direct steps to enhance the future benefits, or at least the probability that they will be generated.
TRANSFER PRICING STUDIES
Transfer pricing is a term used to describe methods of pricing transactions between entities located in different countries that are under common control.
These can include transfers of tangible goods, services, intellectual property or financing transactions. Inter-company pricing can impact how much income tax is paid to each country when a company operates in more than one country. In taxation and accounting, transfer pricing refers to the rules and methods for pricing transactions within and between enterprises under common ownership or control.